Croton River, NY

Weschester to NYC

"Croton River", River, "water source", Omar, water

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The Croton River is a river in southern New York that begins where the East and West Branches of the Croton River meet a little way downstream from the Croton Falls Reservoir. Shortly downstream, the Croton River, along with its tributary, the Muscoot River, flow into the Muscoot Reservoir, and after flowing through that, it empties into the New Croton Reservoir, which feeds the New Croton Aqueduct supplying water to New York City. Excess water leaves the spillway at the New Croton Dam, and finally empties into the Hudson River at Croton-on-Hudson, New York at Croton Point, about 30 miles north of New York City. The river has a watershed area of 361 square miles.

In 1884, the engineers of the Aqueduct Commission of the City of New York had to design a masonry dam, from 275 to 300 ft. high, which was to be built across the Croton River, near its mouth, to form a large storage reservoir for providing a water supply to New York City. [2] The Croton Falls Dam was built and the resulting reservoir, which was placed into service in 1911, can hold 14.2 billion US gallons (54,000,000 m3) of water at full capacity, and has a drainage basin of 16 square miles (25.6 km²).

In the 1890s, New York City ordered the destruction or relocation of any village lining the Croton or its tributaries that threatened to pollute them; the Croton was, and still is, an important part of the water supply of New York City. Many of the villages and hamlets were moved. The city chose this kind of source protection instead of resorting to expensive filtration.

The watershed of the Croton River extends from the Pawling Mountains of  Dutchess and Putnam Counties to the lakes of Westchester County and supplies approximately 10% of New York City water.  The Croton Dam was built on this river in 1837.  Historic sites along the Croton River include Van Cortlandt Manor, a pre-Revolutionary War estate owned by the Van Cortlandt family.  Access to the Hudson River and Croton Point is through a 1/2-mile long marsh area draining into Croton Bay.

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