56-15 Queens Boulevard, Queens, NY 11377

Woodside

brownfield, CVOCs, VOCs, "Vapor Intrusion"

Stanley Black & Decker Inc.
Site Description[1] 
The Brownfield Cleanup Agreement for this site was signed on June 20, 2011. Location: This Site is located at 56-15 Queens Boulevard, Woodside, New York, at the northwest corner of the intersection of Queens Boulevard and 57th Street. It is identified as Block No. 1329, Lot No. 1 on the Queens County tax map. Site features: The Site is 0.37 acres, and consists of an approximately 6,000 square foot single story building on the southern portion of the site. The rest of the lot consists of a paved parking lot and is bordered by a chain-link fence to the north and east. Current zoning/uses: The Site is currently owned by the company Black and Decker and used as a DeWalt, Delta, Porter Cable (DeWalt) power tool service center and factory store. The property is zoned residential (R7X) with commercial overlay (C2-3). The surrounding area is commercial and residential. The site is bordered by residences to the north, a church immediately adjacent to the west (with a mosque further to the west, across 56th Street), Queens Boulevard followed by the New Calvary Cemetery to the south, and residences, an auto repair facility, and a Kentucky Fried Chicken restaurant to the east (all across 57th Street from the Site). Historical use: The property is presumed to have been undeveloped prior to 1948. A used truck sales company operated on the western portion of the Site from 1948 until at least 1951. The current on-site building was constructed in 1954, at which time it was solely occupied by DeWalt. Historic operations at the site by DeWalt which appear to have led to contamination include spray painting, degreasing, machining operations, and waste oil storage, all of which occurred in the western portion of the site. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was used for degreasing (two TCE degreasing units were used at the site until approximately 1980). Contamination consisting of chlorinated solvents was discovered on the property on November 3, 2008 and was reported to NYSDEC Spill Response on January 9, 2009 (Spill No. 0811202). The Site is also registered as a petroleum bulk storage (PBS) facility (PBS ID No. 2-610985) for a 2,000-gallon underground storage tank (UST) containing heating oil. This UST was used until 1972 or 1973 at which time the UST was reportedly cleaned out and closed in place. A non-petroleum stipulation agreement for remediation of the chlorinated solvents was signed between Black and Decker and NYSDEC on June 17, 2009. Under the stipulation agreement, interim remedial measures (IRM) were performed at the Site in November/December 2009. IRM work included removal of a concrete dry well, associated piping, and surrounding contaminated soil, in the area of the Site where contaminants were detected at the highest concentrations (total excavation to a depth of approximately 15 feet below grade). A thermal-enhanced soil vapor extraction (SVE) system was installed in the spring and summer of 2010, utilizing an electro-thermal resistivity heating remediation system. The system was operated intermittently in the Fall of 2010 but ultimately was discontinued due to conflicts of the system with local utility policy. The SVE component of the system, however, continues to run continuously. Site geology and hydrogeology: Investigations at the Site have found that the subsurface material consists of glacial till: an unconsolidated, heterogeneous mixture of clay, silt, sand, pebbles, cobbles, and boulders. The uppermost 20 feet of subsurface soil was found to contain the highest percentage of cobbles and boulders. The till is somewhat finer grained below a depth of approximately 20 feet. At a depth of approximately 60 feet below grade (fbg), a hardpan layer is present within the vadose zone. The hardpan appears to be laterally discontinuous. Groundwater is approximately 65 to 70 fbg.

Site Environmental Assessment
Nature and extent of contamination: Contamination with chlorinated solvents has been confirmed in on-site soil, particularly in the northeast portion of the site. The primary contaminants of concern at the Site are chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds (cVOCs), particularly trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), and degradation products of these compounds. TCE is known to have been used on-site. Soil: In soil, the Remedial Investigation (RI), conducted in 2008-2009, detected TCE site-wide. In the western portion of the Site, concentrations of TCE are below the NYCRR Part 375 Residential Use Soil Cleanup Objectives (RUSCOs), but exceed the Unrestricted Use and Protection of Groundwater Soil Cleanup Objectives. These detections were observed in shallow soil only. The northeastern portion of the site is the area of expected source contamination, due to the former presence of a concrete drywell that is presumed to have been the disposal location for spent chlorinated solvents. In this area, TCE, TCA and breakdown products were detected in much higher concentrations than the rest of the site: TCE as high as 9,700 parts per million (ppm) compared to the RUSCO of 10 ppm; TCA as high as 1,400 ppm (RUSCO of 100 ppm); 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA) as high as 550 ppm (RUSCO of 19 ppm); cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cis-1,2-DCE) as high as 420 ppm (RUSCO of 59 ppm); 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE) as high as 170 ppm (RUSCO of 100 ppm); and vinyl chloride as high as 1.7 ppm (RUSCO of 0.21 ppm). The highest levels of contamination were found at 10 to 17 feet below grade (fbg), but were detected as deep as 40 fbg. The RI also identified non-chlorinated VOCs in the northeastern portion of the site to a lesser extent, including 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene at a concentration of 77 ppm (compared to the RUSCO of 47 ppm). Other petroleum-related VOCs were detected at levels below the RUSCOs but exceeding the SCOs for Protection of Groundwater. Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were detected in the area of the drywell during the RI but at levels below soil cleanup objectives, with the exception of naphthalene (detected at 21 ppm compared to the Protection of Groundwater cleanup objective of 12 ppm). Chromium and lead were also detected at elevated levels: total chromium at a concentration of 144 ppm (compared to the RUSCO of 22 ppm) and lead at a concentration of 4460 ppm (compared to the RUSCO of 400 ppm). Outside the drywell area, SVOCs and metals were detected at levels exceeding Protection of Groundwater SCOs in the one surface soil sample only, from a depth of 0.5’ below grade. Interim remedial measures (IRM) performed at the Site in November/December 2009 involved the removal of the concrete dry well, associated piping, and surrounding contaminated soil. Total excavation was to a depth of approximately 15 fbg. End-point samples collected from the base and sidewalls of the excavation identified levels of VOCs at concentrations similar to those found during the RI. Maximum concentrations of VOCs were identified at a depth of 15 fbg and included: TCA at 4,180 ppm, 1,1-DCA at 50.7 ppm, TCE at 2,840 ppm, cis-1,2-DCE at 55.8 ppm, lead at 450 ppm, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene at 65.9 ppm. Groundwater: In groundwater, chlorinated solvents were detected at levels exceeding NYSDEC Technical and Operational Guidance Series (TOGS) 1.1.1 standards throughout the site. The following contaminants were detected at levels exceeding the TOGS standard of 5 parts per billion (ppb): TCA (maximum concentration of 60 ppb); 1,1-dichloroethane (maximum concentration of 36 ppb); TCE (maximum concentration of 50 ppb); and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (maximum concentration of 25 ppb). In one monitoring well in the eastern portion of the property (MW-4), two petroleum-related SVOCs were detected in groundwater as well: benzo(b)fluoranthene at a concentration of 3 ppb and benzo(k)fluoranthene at a concentration of 2.4 ppb (compared to the TOGS standard of 0.002 ppb for both of these contaminants). Soil vapor: Soil vapor samples exhibited contaminants of concern at elevated levels. TCA was detected in soil vapor at a maximum concentration of 160,000 ug/m3 and TCE was detected at 83,000 ug/m3.. These samples were collected under the asphalt parking lot area of the site, in the immediate vicinity of the drywell, from a depth of 2.5 feet below grade. Off-site sub-slab vapor and indoor air samples were collected in five residences and a church. In all of these locations, sub-slab concentrations warrant mitigation as per the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) Guidance for Evaluating Soil Vapor Intrusion in the State of New York. The highest concentrations were 11,000 ug/m3 of TCE and 3,100 ug/m3 of TCA in one of the residences. Indoor air levels were 43 ug/m3 of TCE and 94 ug/m3 of TCA.

Site Health Assessment
Volatile organic compounds in the groundwater may move into the soil vapor (air spaces within the soil), which in turn may move into overlying buildings and affect the indoor air quality. This process, which is similar to the movement of radon gas from the subsurface into the indoor air of buildings, is referred to as soil vapor intrusion. On-site environmental sampling indicates that site related contaminants of concern are present in the soil vapor. Additionally, off-site investigation has demonstrated site related contaminants of concern intruding into nearby structures at levels that represent a health concern. Contaminated groundwater at the site is not used for drinking or other purposes and the site is served by a public water supply that obtains water from a different source not affected by this contamination. Access to the site is unrestricted. However, contact with contaminated soil or groundwater is unlikely unless they dig below the ground surface.

Contaminants of Concern
Type of Waste Quantity of Waste
1,1,1 TCA UNKNOWN
1,1-DICHLOROETHANE UNKNOWN
1,2,4-TRIMETHYLBENZENE UNKNOWN
BENZO(B)FLUORANTHENE UNKNOWN
BENZO[K]FLUORANTHENE UNKNOWN
CHROMIUM UNKNOWN
DICHLOROETHYLENE UNKNOWN
LEAD UNKNOWN
NAPHTHALENE UNKNOWN
TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PCE) UNKNOWN
TRICHLOROETHENE (TCE) UNKNOWN
VINYL CHLORIDE UNKNOWN
  1. DEC Environmental Site Remediation Database.  Site Name: "DeWalt Service Center".

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