Exterior of 32-00 Skillman Ave.
The site is located in an urban area of Long Island City, Queens at 32-00 Skillman Avenue and is surrounded by mixed industrial and residential uses. The former ACCO Brands, Inc. (ACCO) facility covers an entire city block and is surrounded by a rail yard, multi-family residential properties, and various commercial /industrial/retail properties. The facility was constructed in 1950 and ACCO (or its predecessor corporations) occupied the facility from 1952. The site was reportedly occupied by several automotive service centers and gasoline stations prior to 1950. During their occupancy of the facility, ACCO manufactured staplers and stapler components. Paints, thinners, solvents and cleaners were used as part of the manufacturing process. Wastes generated included paint filters, sludge, rags, and paint. The upper floors of the site are currently used for light industrial purposes; the basement, which is the area covered under the Voluntary Cleanup Agreement, is currently unoccupied. The site's contamination resulted from the release of lubricating oils, paint thinners, solvents and related contaminated materials generated and used during the manufacturing process. As part of site closure activities, ACCO discovered an unlined pit in the basement of the facility. Further investigation of the area surrounding the pit identified the presence of soil and groundwater impacts, primarily trichloroethene (TCE) and its breakdown products. As a result, ACCO conducted additional soil and groundwater investigation activities to evaluate the nature of the impacts. The results of this investigation indicated that the extent of soil impacts is generally confined to beneath the footprint of a portion of the basement of building. The data collected to date indicate that impacts to groundwater extend further downgradient of the site. The Remedial Action Work Plan (RAWP) for Operable Unit 1 (on-site area) was approved by NYSDEC in the summer of 2004 and the remedial activities commenced in August 2004. Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE) and ozone oxidation are used to treat the vadose zone. Shallow groundwater is treated with air and ozone sparging. Intermediate and deep groundwater is treated with permanganate oxidation. The remedial activities for Operable Unit 1 commenced in August 2004 and are ongoing. A Remedial Investigation Work Plan (RIWP) for Operable Unit 2 (off-site impacts) was approved in the summer of 2006. The results of the testing performed on the groundwater and soil vapor were released in the RI Report/RAWP for OU-2 which was submitted in September 2007. A Pilot Study was proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of applying in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) in the groundwater within OU-2. The Pilot Study was approved in November 2008 and ISCO operations began in December and continued until February 2009 with injections of potassium permanganate and extractions of groundwater in OU-2. Operations will resume in early spring.
Site Environmental Assessment
Exterior of 32-00 Skillman Ave.
Soil: The extent of impacted vadose zone soils is confined to the western half of the footprint of the facility's basement (OU-1). The most elevated concentrations in the vadose zone soils were identified in the vicinity of an unlined pit (located in the center of the basement), which was discovered during the facility closure. Concentrations of TCE detected in these vadose zone soils ranged from 0.030 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) to 240 mg/kg. Groundwater: The extent of the on-site portion (OU-1) of the dissolved-phase impacts encompasses the footprint of the western half of the basement. Groundwater impacts also extend to the southwest of the site (OU-2). TCE concentrations range from 0.007 milligrams per liter (mg/L) to 460 mg/L. The remediation of the on-site area (Operable Unit 1) is currently ongoing. As a result of the remediation, the environmental risk posed by the site will be reduced through VOC mass removal and destruction. Physical treatment using soil vapor extraction (SVE) and ambient air sparging will be used to recover the readily available VOC mass. IN addition, chemical oxidation (ozone and permanganate) will be used to destroy the remaining VOCs in the subsurface. Physical treatment (i.e., low-flow SVE) will be continued during active oxidation to maximize VOC removal from the subsurface and to prevent fugitive emissions of ozone. The VOC source will be removed via a combination of recovery and destructive processes. The combined physical and chemical treatment approaches will maximize the reduction in the source zone mass to the greatest extent possible. The proposed source zone treatment and removal strategy will achieve the maximum protection of human health and the environment that can be obtained. Results of the Remedial Investigation (RI) of off-site operable unit 2 (OU-2) indicate that the on-site contamination has migrated off-site following the path of the groundwater flow i.e. west and north-west. Eight of ten off-site monitoring wells exhibited TCE concentrations exceeding the NYSDEC Class GA groundwater standards with a maximum concentration of 89,300 ug/l. These exceedances were all found in the intermediate and deep zones of the underlying aquifer. TCE was also detected at elevated concentrations in all nine soil vapor sample locations. A Pilot Study was proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of applying in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) in the groundwater within OU-2. The Pilot Study was approved in November 2008 and ISCO operations began in December and continued until February 2009 with injections of potassium permanganate and extractions of groundwater in OU-2. Operations will resume in early spring. Site Health Assessment
On-site soil and groundwater are contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Exposure to contaminated soil is not expected as contamination is beneath the building. Groundwater in the area is not used for drinking water purposes, therefore, exposures are unlikely. On-site remediation of soil and groundwater is in progress. Off-site groundwater is contaminated with VOCs and the potential for soil vapor intrusion will be evaluated.
Contaminants of Concern
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